France's present natural risk prevention policy is the fruit of the progressive development of a diversity of solutions to loss events that occurred over the course of the past several decades: protection of the territories against natural perils, integration of risk prevention factors in urban planning, natural hazard forecasting, crisis preparation, public awareness programs, reduction of the level of vulnerability of property and activities, improvement of construction standards. Public prevention measures, sometimes closely linked together, are developed on a broad scale and by stakeholders from a wide variety of areas. They must therefore coexist within a complex architecture that sometimes lacks visibility in terms of operation as well as efficiency. The goal of the explanations in this section is to shed light on the type, the degree of implementation and the level of effectiveness of some of the more emblematic public prevention measures...

February 2, 1995Established by the French law of February 2, 1995, in response to dramatic flooding that demonstrated the severe pitfalls of uncontrolled urban planning in risk-prone areas, the NDPP replaced the Risk Exposure Plan the implementation of which met with several obstacles.

€ 190 mSince 1997, the Barnier Fund has provided 190 million euros towards the development of NDPPs.

100% financingFinanced at a rate of 100% by the Barnier Fund, the implementation of an NDPP makes it mandatory for the mayor of a municipality covered by this measure to also put in place a Municipal Contingency Plan (MCP) and a Municipal Information Document on Major Risks (MIDMR).

11,888In 2017, 11,888 municipalities were covered by an NDPP or a similar type of measure (SAP, REP, article R111.3).

The Law of July 13, 1982 established a compensation scheme including compulsory deductibles together with a prevention plan (the Risk Exposure Plan, which today has become the Natural Disaster Prevention Plan). The links between compensation and prevention have been strengthened by a sliding scale that adjusts the deductibles applying to municipalities that do not have Natural Disaster Prevention Plans, to encourage them to introduce such plans.

Since January 1, 2001, in municipalities without Natural Disaster Plans (approved or prescribed within the previous 4 years), it has been possible to adjust deductibles (except for motor insurance policies) for more than two Natural Disaster decrees concerning the same type of peril and during the course of the five previous years, according to the number of decrees enacted (1 to 2, 3, 4, 5 and more):

Number of natural disaster decrees for All perils

1 to 2

3

4

5 and more

Total

Basic Deductible

2582

Doubling of Deductible

182

Tripling of Deductible

59

Quadrupling of Deductible

35
2858

Basic Deductible

2968

Doubling of Deductible

476

Tripling of Deductible

178

Quadrupling of Deductible

61
3683

Basic Deductible

1874

Doubling of Deductible

131

Tripling of Deductible

46

Quadrupling of Deductible

19
2070

Basic Deductible

6857

Doubling of Deductible

126

Tripling of Deductible

34

Quadrupling of Deductible

7
7024

Basic Deductible

494

Doubling of Deductible

21

Tripling of Deductible

8

Quadrupling of Deductible

3
526

Basic Deductible

2549

Doubling of Deductible

393

Tripling of Deductible

78

Quadrupling of Deductible

8
3028

Basic Deductible

1387

Doubling of Deductible

46

Tripling of Deductible

34

Quadrupling of Deductible

23
1490

Basic Deductible

1461

Doubling of Deductible

52

Tripling of Deductible

24

Quadrupling of Deductible

18
1555

Basic Deductible

2742

Doubling of Deductible

86

Tripling of Deductible

12

Quadrupling of Deductible

3
2843

Basic Deductible

7228

Doubling of Deductible

132

Tripling of Deductible

18

Quadrupling of Deductible

2
7380

Basic Deductible

4490

Doubling of Deductible

39

Tripling of Deductible

13

Quadrupling of Deductible

7
4549

Basic Deductible

3026

Doubling of Deductible

290

Tripling of Deductible

62

Quadrupling of Deductible

16
3394

Basic Deductible

1424

Doubling of Deductible

56

Tripling of Deductible

20

Quadrupling of Deductible

3
1503

Basic Deductible

1941

Doubling of Deductible

29

Tripling of Deductible

4

Quadrupling of Deductible

0
1974

Basic Deductible

2677

Doubling of Deductible

73

Tripling of Deductible

22

Quadrupling of Deductible

5
2777

Basic Deductible

1105

Doubling of Deductible

56

Tripling of Deductible

12

Quadrupling of Deductible

5
1178

Basic Deductible

3895

Doubling of Deductible

71

Tripling of Deductible

9

Quadrupling of Deductible

6
3981

Basic Deductible

384

Doubling of Deductible

6

Tripling of Deductible

0

Quadrupling of Deductible

0
390

Basic Deductible

49084

Doubling of Deductible

2265

Tripling of Deductible

633

Quadrupling of Deductible

221
52203

Number of natural disaster decrees for flooding

1 to 2

3

4

5 and more

Total

Basic Deductible

2402

Doubling of Deductible

151

Tripling of Deductible

39

Quadrupling of Deductible

17
2609

Basic Deductible

2688

Doubling of Deductible

435

Tripling of Deductible

165

Quadrupling of Deductible

53
3341

Basic Deductible

1220

Doubling of Deductible

66

Tripling of Deductible

23

Quadrupling of Deductible

8
1317

Basic Deductible

2365

Doubling of Deductible

85

Tripling of Deductible

19

Quadrupling of Deductible

5
2474

Basic Deductible

356

Doubling of Deductible

12

Tripling of Deductible

1

Quadrupling of Deductible

2
371

Basic Deductible

846

Doubling of Deductible

37

Tripling of Deductible

15

Quadrupling of Deductible

2
900

Basic Deductible

1132

Doubling of Deductible

14

Tripling of Deductible

0

Quadrupling of Deductible

1
1147

Basic Deductible

1202

Doubling of Deductible

17

Tripling of Deductible

1

Quadrupling of Deductible

0
1220

Basic Deductible

2548

Doubling of Deductible

76

Tripling of Deductible

11

Quadrupling of Deductible

1
2636

Basic Deductible

6633

Doubling of Deductible

82

Tripling of Deductible

7

Quadrupling of Deductible

1
6723

Basic Deductible

3019

Doubling of Deductible

25

Tripling of Deductible

11

Quadrupling of Deductible

7
3062

Basic Deductible

980

Doubling of Deductible

53

Tripling of Deductible

16

Quadrupling of Deductible

9
1058

Basic Deductible

757

Doubling of Deductible

19

Tripling of Deductible

9

Quadrupling of Deductible

1
786

Basic Deductible

1702

Doubling of Deductible

24

Tripling of Deductible

2

Quadrupling of Deductible

0
1728

Basic Deductible

2458

Doubling of Deductible

68

Tripling of Deductible

21

Quadrupling of Deductible

2
2549

Basic Deductible

802

Doubling of Deductible

45

Tripling of Deductible

11

Quadrupling of Deductible

4
862

Basic Deductible

2940

Doubling of Deductible

51

Tripling of Deductible

8

Quadrupling of Deductible

6
3005

Basic Deductible

356

Doubling of Deductible

6

Tripling of Deductible

0

Quadrupling of Deductible

0
362

Basic Deductible

34406

Doubling of Deductible

1266

Tripling of Deductible

359

Quadrupling of Deductible

119
36150

Pour les inondations (incluant les remontées de nappe et la submersion marine), la franchise n’a été modulée que dans 5% des reconnaissances (1 744 modulations sur 36 150 reconnaissances).

Number of natural disaster decrees for drought

1 to 2

3

4

5 and more

Total

Basic Deductible

41

Doubling of Deductible

14

Tripling of Deductible

10

Quadrupling of Deductible

4
69

Basic Deductible

6

Doubling of Deductible

7

Tripling of Deductible

1

Quadrupling of Deductible

0
14

Basic Deductible

571

Doubling of Deductible

63

Tripling of Deductible

23

Quadrupling of Deductible

9
666

Basic Deductible

4383

Doubling of Deductible

39

Tripling of Deductible

14

Quadrupling of Deductible

2
4438

Basic Deductible

84

Doubling of Deductible

9

Tripling of Deductible

7

Quadrupling of Deductible

1
101

Basic Deductible

1680

Doubling of Deductible

354

Tripling of Deductible

62

Quadrupling of Deductible

6
2102

Basic Deductible

238

Doubling of Deductible

32

Tripling of Deductible

34

Quadrupling of Deductible

22
326

Basic Deductible

187

Doubling of Deductible

35

Tripling of Deductible

23

Quadrupling of Deductible

18
263

Basic Deductible

120

Doubling of Deductible

10

Tripling of Deductible

1

Quadrupling of Deductible

2
133

Basic Deductible

545

Doubling of Deductible

49

Tripling of Deductible

11

Quadrupling of Deductible

1
606

Basic Deductible

87

Doubling of Deductible

14

Tripling of Deductible

2

Quadrupling of Deductible

0
103

Basic Deductible

2012

Doubling of Deductible

235

Tripling of Deductible

46

Quadrupling of Deductible

7
2300

Basic Deductible

603

Doubling of Deductible

36

Tripling of Deductible

10

Quadrupling of Deductible

2
651

Basic Deductible

22

Doubling of Deductible

1

Tripling of Deductible

0

Quadrupling of Deductible

0
23

Basic Deductible

43

Doubling of Deductible

1

Tripling of Deductible

0

Quadrupling of Deductible

0
44

Basic Deductible

197

Doubling of Deductible

8

Tripling of Deductible

1

Quadrupling of Deductible

0
206

Basic Deductible

866

Doubling of Deductible

19

Tripling of Deductible

1

Quadrupling of Deductible

0
886

Basic Deductible

11685

Doubling of Deductible

926

Tripling of Deductible

246

Quadrupling of Deductible

74
12931

Dans le cas de la sécheresse, la franchise a été modulée dans 10% des cas (1 246 modulations sur 12 931 reconnaissances).


Municipal Contingency Plan (MCP)

The Municipal Contingency Plan is a crisis preparation measure aimed at protecting the population from the adverse effects of a potentially dangerous event. The plan was made mandatory by the French law on the modernization of civil security dated August 13, 2004 for all municipalities with an approved NDPP. Implementation is required within a period of two years from the date of approval of the NDPP. The MCP is a document used in the planning, at the municipality level, of measures aimed at safeguarding the population in the event of a civil security crisis (alerts, preventive evacuation, temporary lodging, support to the population, safety recommendations, etc.). The law also requires that the MCP be integrated into documents within the competence of the municipality that contribute to providing prevention information and therefore in particular into the Municipal Information Document on Major Risks (MIDMR). The reasoning is simple, the safeguarding measures deployed by the mayor when anticipating a crisis are more effective when the population is adequately informed. The establishment of an MCP may not be financed by the Barnier Fund. However, its implementation constitutes, for those municipalities seeking to develop and implement an Action Plan for Flood Prevention (APFP), a necessary condition when requesting financing, through the Barnier Fund, of a portion of the funds necessary for operating hydraulic works included in the NDPP.

MUNICIPAL INFORMATION DOCUMENT ON MAJOR RISKS (MIDMR)

The MIDMR is a municipal measure designed to heighten the population's awareness of risks. It often takes the form of a brochure that presents information in a pedagogical format enabling readers to assimilate information on risks to which their municipality is exposed (history of events, map of hazards), the ways of alerting the population in case of an emergency, the safeguarding measures the authorities will take if an event occurs, the right attitude to adopt in case of a crisis. The creation of an MIDMR and making it available at the town hall is mandatory for every mayor whose municipality is covered by an NDPP. The MIDMR is an integral part of the MCP. The MIDMR may be financed by the Barnier Fund for up to 100%. As is the case for the MCP, its implementation is a required condition for obtaining financing, through the Barnier Fund, of a portion of the funds necessary for operating hydraulic works included in the NDPP.

ACTION PLAN FOR FLOOD PREVENTION (APFP)

The APFP is a prevention measure that is distinctly different from the NDPP, MCP and MIDMR. As its name implies, an APFP addresses only the issue of flood prevention, though the concept of flood embraces a wide range of events (overflowing of water banks, rising water tables, run-off flooding, exceptional rainfall, marine submersions).

The scope of the plan may include territories of varying size and very often those with over ten municipalities and, as a general rule, the scope is consistent with the hazard the plan addresses (drainage basins, hydro-sedimentary units). An APFP is an action plan, i.e. a group of several measures that are designed to operate in concert and cover a broad range of objectives for a given territory. To this extent, an APFP can "contain" a review of an NDPP, the creation of an MIDMR, the implementation of an MCP, as well as a full range of additional prevention actions. Used by several territories of varying type, the role of an APFP is to provide an overall solution to flood risk issues. Initiated in 2003 in the form of a one-off project, the measure became a genuine success (over a hundred projects were developed in France covering 40% of the population exposed to overflow flooding risk and 60% of the population exposed to marine submersion risk).

The uniqueness of this measure lies in particular in the selection process that is used to obtain subsidies from the Barnier Fund. The latter is based on a number of specifications that have evolved significantly over the past fifteen years and the requirements of which have become more stringent. Specifications for the APFP impose in particular that the proposed strategy is based on a balance of committed actions and measures (public awareness, flood forecasts, crisis preparation, integration of flood prevention factors in territorial planning, reduction in the level of vulnerability of existing property and activities, works to avert rapid landslides, works for the creation, enhancement and heightening of dikes). It also imposes the use of a cost-to-benefit analysis or a multi-criteria analysis for the costliest hydraulic protection works.

On average, 38% of the cost of an APFP can be financed through the Barnier Fund. Access to this financing is however subject to the existence of a prescribed NDPP within the territory covered by the APFP. Payment of the Barnier Fund's share of financing for the hydraulic protection works conducted in the framework of the APFP is subject to compliance by the mayors of their obligations to provide prevention information (creation of MIDMRs) and the implementation of the Municipal Contingency Plans (MCPs). Since 2011, the Barnier Fund1 has provided 760 million euros towards the development of APFPs.

Source : French Ministry for an Ecological and Solidary Transition – Report on APFP-RSP certification (French only) – Flood Commission Meeting of February 8, 2018.